Dye sublimation is a printing process that uses a special ink that when heated sublimates (goes from its solid state directly into a gas) and then dyes whatever surface it’s attached to upon heating. The process centers around using specialty ink and a machine that evenly heats and presses the ink into any given surface.
How does the dye sublimation process work for fine art metal prints?
Using dye sublimation on metal surfaces is an eight-step process:
- Digital Image Prep: Any image to be printed should be run through Photoshop or similar photo manipulation software to adjust it before printing. This includes resizing the image, updating the color hues or scales, and any other necessary editing.
- Print Image on Paper: Using the heat-activated dye sublimation ink, the image is printed on “transfer paper” a special paper that is designed for the intense heat of the sublimation process and excellent image fidelity.
- Prepare Metal For Transfer: Typically an aluminum alloy, the metal is treated with a coating that will help the ink adhere to the surface as it transfers from the paper onto the metal. The coating also helps ensure the vibrancy and accuracy of colors.
- Attach Paper With Image To Metal: The transfer paper with the image is aligned and laid face down on the metal surface. It’s critical that the paper is aligned and perfectly flat on the metal before the next step.
- Apply Heat and Pressure: Both the transfer paper and the metal are then sandwiched between the top and bottom plates of a heat press machine. The heat press machine is heated to a specific temperature in order to activate the ink and turn it into a gas, usually around 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit (175 to 200 degrees Celsius). Once the desired temperature is reached, the heat and pressure are applied to the metal and transfer paper.
- Sublimate Dye Onto Metal: As the heat is applied, the dye-based inks on the transfer paper start to sublimate, which means they change from a solid to a gaseous state without becoming liquid. The high temperature and pressure cause the ink particles to penetrate the polymer coating on the metal surface, creating the image you see.
- Ink Setting and Cooling: Once the gaseous ink particles attach to the metal they need to set and cool to become permanent and bond with the surface. The ink returns to its solid state and is embedded in the metal.
- Finishing & Protective Coatings: After the ink is set and the metal has cooled, the transfer paper is peeled off, any additional trimming or frame prep is done and an additional protective coating is applied.
With the use of dye sublimation (infusing dyes directly into the metal print), it provides results that are outstandingly clear, vibrant, and well-preserved for years to come. Printing images directly onto a surface holds a higher risk of unwanted scratching. The dye sublimation process of infusing dyes directly into the coating provides permanent protection for your artwork.
The dye sublimation process on metal prints offers several advantages, including excellent color reproduction, high durability, scratch resistance, and resistance to fading. The resulting prints often have a glossy or satin finish and can showcase intricate details and vibrant colors, making them popular for various applications such as art displays, signage, photography, and personalized gifts.